“While Quirinius was governing Syria”
PDF

Palavras-chave

Census
Quirinius
Historicity
Luke

Como Citar

de Oliveira Neto, M. A. (2022). “While Quirinius was governing Syria”: Towards the historical plausibility of Luke 2:2. Kerygma, 16(2), 75–97. https://doi.org/10.19141/1809-2454.kerygma.v16.n2.p75-97

Resumo

The present paper employs a historiographical comparative approach to evaluate the historical plausibility of the census found in Luke 2:2. Though there is no direct evidence of a census under Quirinius, in Judea, before the death of Herod other than Luke 2:2, nevertheless there is enough evidence to state Luke’s historical plausibility when the larger context is considered, i.e. the nature of roman censuses, the Egyptian census system, the accounts of Josephus, Herod’s relationship with Rome, the identity and career of Quirinius and a recent archaeological discovery of a roman weight standard in Herods’ Judea.

https://doi.org/10.19141/1809-2454.kerygma.v16.n2.p75-97
PDF

Referências

ALAND, K. et al. Novum Testamentum Graece, 28th edition. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2012.

BALZ, H. R.; SCHNEIDER, G. (Eds.). Exegetical dictionary of the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1990-1993.

BARKER, K. L.; BAILEY, D. W. Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah. Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman, 1999. (The New American Commentary, v. 20).

BLEDSOE, A. M. D. Qumran, Khirbet. In: BARRY, J. D. et al. (Eds.). The Lexham Bible dictionary. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2016.

BLUMELL, Lincoln H.; WAYMENT, T. A. When was Jesus born? A response to a recent proposal. BYU Studies Quarterly, v. 51, p. 53-81, 2012.

BOCKMUEHL, M. The Son of David and his mother. The Journal of Theological Studies, v. 62, n. 2, p. 476-493, 2011.

BOND, H. K. The historical Jesus: a guide for the perplexed. London: T&T Clark International, 2012.

BOWMAN, A. K. Egypt. In: BOWMAN, A. K., CHAMPLIN, E.; LINTTOT, A. (Eds.). The Cambridge ancient history: the Augustan Empire, 43 B.C.-A.D. 69. 2. ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. (The Cambridge Ancient History, v. 10).

BRAUND, D. C. Archelaus (person). In: FREEDMAN, D. N. et al. (Eds.). The Anchor Yale Bible dictionary. New York: Doubleday, 1992.

BRINDLE, W. The census and Quirinius: Luke 2:2. Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, v. 27, n. 1, p. 43-52, 1984.

BROWN, R. E. Gospel infancy narrative research from 1976 to 1986, part II. The Catholic Biblical Quarterly, v. 48, n. 4, p. 660-680, 1986.

BROWN, R. E. The birth of the Messiah: a commentary on the infancy narratives in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke. New updated ed. New York; London: Doubleday, 1993. (The Anchor bible reference library).

BRUNT, P. A.; MOORE, A.; MICHAEL, J. (1995): Res gestae Divi Augusti: the achievements of the divine Augustus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.

BUNSON, M. Encyclopaedia of the Roman Empire. 3rd ed. New York: Facts On File, 2002. (Facts on File Library of World History).

BULTMANN, R. Nuevo Testamento e mitologia: il Manifesto della Demitizzazione. Translated by Luciano Tosti and Franco Bianco. 5 ed. Firenze: Queriana, 1970.

BUTLER, T. C.Luke. Nashville, TN: Holman Reference, 2000. (Holman New Testament Commentary, v. 3).

CHADWICK, J. R. Dating the birth of Jesus Christ. Brigham Young University Studies, v. 4, n. 49, p. 4-38, 2010.

CICERO, M. T. Select orations of Cicero. Edited by J. B. Greenough and George Lyman Kittredge. Boston; London: Ginn & Company, 1898.

CLARKE, W. K. L. The chronology of the New Testament. In: GORE, C. A new commentary on Holy Scripture including the Apocrypha. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1943.

COMFORT, P. W. (Ed.). Cornerstone biblical commentary. With assistance of A. A. Trites and William J. Larkin. Carol Stream IL: Tyndale House Publishers, 2005-2012.

CROSS, F. L.; LIVINGSTONE, E. A. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. 3rd ed. rev. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

CROSSAN, J. D. Who killed Jesus? Exposing the roots of anti-Semitism in the gospel story of the death of Jesus. New York, NY: HarperCollins, 1995.

DABROWA, E. The date of the census of Quirinius and the chronology of the governors of the province of Syria. Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, p. 137-142, 2011.

DANKER, F. W.; BAUER, W.; ARNDT, W. (Eds.). A Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament and other early Christian literature. With assistance of Frederick William Danker. 3rd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

DAVIES, W. D.; HORNBURY, W.; STURDY, J. The Cambridge history of Judaism, volume 3. With assistance of W. D. Davies, William Hornbury, and John Sturdy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

DEMOSS, M. S. Oxford hypothesis. In: DEMOSS, M. S. Pocket dictionary for the study of New Testament Greek. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2001.

DERRETT, J. D. M. Further light on the narratives of the nativity. Novum Testamentum, v. 17, p. 81-108, 1975.

DESILVA, D. A. An introduction to the New Testament: contexts, methods & ministry formation. Leicester: Apollos, 2004.

DOLLAR, S. Cyrenius. In: BRAND, C. et al. (Eds). Bill Latta: Holman illustrated Bible dictionary. Revised and expanded. Nashville, TN: Holman Reference, 2015. p. 377.

DONFRIED, K. P. Chronology: New Testament. In: FREEDMAN, D. N. et al. (Eds.). The Anchor Yale Bible dictionary. New York: Doubleday, 1992.

DUNCAN, D. M. Further light on the narratives of the nativity. Novum Testamentum, v. 17, n. 2, p. 81-108, 1975. https://doi.org/10.2307/1560168

DUNN, J. D. G.; MCKNIGHT, S. The historical Jesus in recent research. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2005. (Sources for Biblical and Theological Study, v. 10).

EDWARDS, J. R. The gospel according to Mark. Grand Rapids; Cambridge; Leicester: Eerdmans; Apollos, 2016. (The Pillar New Testament Commentary).

EHRMAN, B. Did Jesus exist? The historical argument for Jesus of Nazareth. New York: Harper One, 2012.

ELWELL, W. A.; BEITZEL, B. J. Baker encyclopaedia of the Bible. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1988.

GERTOUX, G. Herod the Great and Jesus: chronological, historical and archaeological evidence. N.p.: LULU, 2015.

GOODMAN, M. Judea. In: BOWMAN, A. K., CHAMPLIN, E.; LINTTOT, A. (Eds.). The Cambridge ancient history: the Augustan Empire, 43 B.C.-A.D. 69. 2. ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. (The Cambridge Ancient History, v. 10).

GORE, C. A new commentary on Holy Scripture including the Apocrypha. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1943.

GRAF, D. F. Aretas. In: FREEDMAN, D. N. et al. (Eds.). The Anchor Yale Bible dictionary. New York: Doubleday, 1992.

GRAF, D. F. Nabateans. In: FREEDMAN, D. N. et al. (Eds.). The Anchor Yale Bible dictionary.New York: Doubleday, 1992.

GREEN, J. B. Hearing the New Testament: strategies for interpretation 2nd ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans; Edinburgh: Alban, 2010.

GRUEN, E. S. The expansion of the empire under Augustus. In: BOWMAN, A. K., CHAMPLIN, E.; LINTTOT, A. (Eds.). The Cambridge ancient history: the Augustan Empire, 43 B.C.-A.D. 69. 2. Ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. (The Cambridge Ancient History, v. 10).

GUPTA, N. K. Christology. In: BARRY, J. D. et al. (Eds.). The Lexham Bible dictionary. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2016.

HAVERFIELD, F. The census of Sulpicius Quirinius. Classical Association, v. 14, n. 6, 1900.

HOLMES, M. W. (Ed.). The Greek New Testament: SBL edition. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2010.

JAMIESON, R.; FAUSSET, A. R.; BROWN, D. A commentary, critical and explanatory, on the whole Bible. New York: George H. Doran Company, 1921.

JEREMIAS, J. Jerusalem in the time of Jesus: an investigation into economic and social conditions during the New Testament period. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1969.

JOHNSON, L. T. Among the gentiles: Greco-Roman religion and Christianity. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009. (Anchor Yale Bible Reference Library).

JOSEPHUS, F.; FELDMAN, L. H.; BEGG, C.; MASON, S. Flavius Josephus: translation and commentary. Edited by Steve Mason. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

JOSEPHUS, F.; WHISTON, W. The works of Flavius Josephus: comprising the antiquities of the Jews a history of the Jewish wars and life of Flavius Josephus, written by himself. Philadelphia, PA: J. B. Smith & Co., 1854.

KEENER, C. S. The IVP Bible background commentary: New Testament. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1993.

KOKKINOS, N. The honorand of the Titulus Tiburtinus. C. Sentius Saturninus? Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, p. 21–36, 1995.

KUGLER, R. A.; HARTIN, P. J. An introduction to the Bible. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2009.

LATASTER, R. C. Jesus did not exist: a debate among atheists. N.p.: Raphael C. Lataster, 2015.

LEVINE, A. J.; ALLISON, D. C.; CROSSAN, J. D. eds. The historical Jesus in context. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006. (Princeton Readings in Religion).

LEVINE, L. I. Herod the Great (person). In: FREEDMAN, D. N. et al. (Eds.). The Anchor Yale Bible dictionary. New York: Doubleday, 1992.

LEWIS, C. T. An elementary Latin dictionary. Edited by Hugh Macmaster Kingery. New York: American Book Company, 1915.

LICONA, M. The resurrection of Jesus: a new historiographical approach. Nottingham: Apollos, 2018.

LICHTENBERGER, A. Was Romanisation a goal of the building policy of Herod? In: JACOBSON, D. M.; KOKKINOS, N. (Eds.). Herod and Augustus: Papers Presented at the IJS Conference, 21st-23rd June 2005. Leiden: Brill, 2009. p. 43-65.

LOUW, J. P.; NIDA, E. A.; SMITH, R. B.; MUNSON, K. A. (Eds.). Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament: based on semantic domains. 2nd ed. New York: United Bible Societies, 1989.

LUKASZEWSKI, A. L.; DUBIS, M.; BLAKLEY, J. Ted. The Lexham syntactic Greek New Testament, SBL edition: expansions and annotations. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2011), Lk 2:1.

MARSH, N. M. Adultery in the Bible. In: BARRY, J. D. et al. (Eds.). The Lexham Bible dictionary. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2016.

MARSHALL, I. H. The Gospel of Luke: a commentary on the Greek text. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1978. (The New International Greek Testament Commentary).

MARSHALL, I. H. The present state of Lucan stidies. Themelios, v. 14, n. 2, p. 52-57, 1989.

MCDOWELL, S.; KUNKLE, B. (Eds.). The apologetics study Bible for students. Revised and updated edition. Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers, 2017.

MCGIFFERT, A. C. Prolegomena: the life and writings of Eusebius of Cæsarea. In SCHAFF, P.; WACE, H. (Eds.). Eusebius: Church history, Life of Constantine the Great, and Oration in praise of Constantine. New York: Christian Literature Company, 1890.

MCGOVERN, J. J. (Ed.). Catholic pocket dictionary and cyclopedia. Chicago: Extension Press, 1906.

MORRIS, L. Luke: an introduction and commentary. 2nd ed. Nottingham: Inter-Varsity, 2008.

(Tyndale New Testament Commentaries, v. 3).

NEGEV, A. (Ed.). The archaeological encyclopaedia of the Holy Land. With assistance of Neil Asher Silberman. 3rd ed. New York; London; Toronto: Prentice Hall Press, 1990.

PELLING, C. The Triumviral Period. In: BOWMAN, A. K., CHAMPLIN, E.; LINTTOT, A. (Eds.). The Cambridge ancient history: the Augustan Empire, 43 B.C.-A.D. 69. 2. ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. (The Cambridge Ancient History, v. 10).

PORTER, H. Money. In: ORR, J.; NUELSEN, J. L.; MULLINS, E. Y. (Eds.). The international standard Bible encyclopaedia. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1915.

PUSKAS, C. B.; CRUMP, D. An introduction to the gospels and Acts. Grand Rapids, MI; Cambridge: Eerdmans, 2008.

RAMOS, A. Publicus Sulpicius Quirinius. In: BARRY, J. D. et al. (Eds.). The Lexham Bible dictionary. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2016.

RAMSAY, W. M. Was Christ born at Bethlehem? A study on the credibility of St. Luke. 3d ed. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1905.

RAMSAY, W. M. St Paul the traveller and the Roman citizen. 14th enlarged ed. N.p.: Hodder and Stoughton, 1920. (The Morgan Lectures, 1894).

RENAN, E. The life of Jesus. Complete ed. London: K. Paul Trench Trübner & Co. Ltd., 1893.

RHOADS, J. H. Josephus misdated. The Census of Quirinius, v. 1, n. 54, p. 65-87, 2011.

RIST, J. M. Luke 2:2: Making sense of the date of Jesus’ birth. The Journal of Theological Studies, v. 56 (2), p. 489-491, 2005.

ROBERTSON, A. T. Word pictures in the New Testament series. Nashville, TN: Broadman, 1903-1933.

SADDINGTON, D. B. Client king’s armies under Augustus. In: JACOBSON, D. M.; KOKKINOS, N. (Eds.). Herod and Augustus: Papers Presented at the IJS Conference, 21st-23rd June 2005. Leiden: Brill, 2009. p. 303-325.

SCHMITZ, P. C. Census: Roman census. In: FREEDMAN, D. N. et al. (Eds.). The Anchor Yale Bible dictionary. New York: Doubleday, 1992.

SCHWARTZ, D. R. On Quirinius, John the Baptist, the Benedictus, Melchizedek, Quram and Ephesus. Revue de Qumrân, v. 13, p. 635-46, 1988.

SCHÜRER, E. The history of the Jewish people in the age of Jesus Christ, 175 B. C. -A. D. 135, vol. 1. Rev. ed. Edinburg: T & T Clark, 1973.

SHERWIN-WHITE, A. N. Roman society and Roman law in the New Testament. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963.

SMITH, M. D. Of Jesus and Quirinus. The Catholic Biblical Quarterly, v. 62, p. 278-293, 2000.

STEIN, R. H. Luke. Nashville, TN: Broadman, 1993. (The New American Commentary).

TACITUS, C.; FISHER, C. D. Historiorum libri. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. (Scriptorum classicorum bibliotheca Oxoniensis).

SWANSON, J. ἡγεμονεύω. In: Dictionary of Biblical Languages with Semitic Domains: Greek New Testament. Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, 1997.

TAYLOR, L. R. Quirinius and the census of Judea. The American Journal of Philology, v. 54, n. 2, p. 120-133, 1933.

TEUFF, B. L. Les recensements augustéens, aux origines de l’Empire. Pallas, p. 75-90, 2014.

THOMAS, J. D. A petition to the prefect of Egypt and related imperial edicts. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, v. 61, p. 201-221, 1975.

THORLEV, J. The nativity census: what does Luke actually say? Greece & Rome, v. 26, n. 1, p. 81-84, 1979. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0017383500026723

UDOH, F. E. To Caesar what is Caesar’s: tribute, taxes and imperial administration in early Roman Palestine (63 B.C.E.-70 C.E.). Providence, RI: Brown Judaic Studies, 2006. (Brown Judaic Studies, n. 343).

WATSON, A. (Ed.). Digest. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998.

WHITE, S. A. N. Roman society and Roman law in the New Testament. London: Oxford University Press, 1963.

WINSTEAD, M. B. Herod the Great. In: BARRY, J. D. et al. (Eds.). The Lexham Bible dictionary.Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2016.

ZEITLIN, S. The dates of the birth and the crucifixion of Jesus. The Crucifixion, a Libelous Accusation Against the Jews, v. 55, p. 1-22, 1964.

ZONDERVAN Bible Publishers. NIV faithlife study Bible: intriguing insights to inform your faith. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2017.

Creative Commons License
Este trabalho está licenciado sob uma licença Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2022 Kerygma

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.